The mouse intestinal lumen
Bacteria (red) interact closely with the mucus layer (green) of the mouse intestine (nuclear staining of villi in blue)

photo: Qi Yan Ang
Phylogenetic tree
16S rRNA sequence variants transplanted from humans to mice

image: Jordan Bisanz

Gnotobiotics is derived from the Greek gnosos, meaning known, and bios, meaning life. This technology enables the breeding and maintenance of germ-free animals that are devoid of any associated microorganisms, including bacteria, archaea, microscopic fungi, parasites, and viruses.  The mission of the Gnotobiotic Core is to enable UCSF researchers to perform experiments introducing defined microbes or microbial consortia to test their impact on host physiology and disease.